All kinds of DNA testing are based on the fact that each and every one of us has a unique genetic profile, to the extent that the odds of two people having the same genetic profile are 1 to 6 billion. Therefore DNA analysis provides a means of establishing the identities of persons with extremely high levels of accuracy. At the same time DNA is inherited from one generation to the other, and modern day knowledge of patterns of genetic inheritance has led to the development of tests that are able to establish the existence of biological relationships between people.
DNA Paternity test
One of the most popular and readily available of these tests is the DNA paternity test. This type of test is used in cases where the paternity of an alleged father needs to be established in a scientific manner. During this test the genetic profile of the child is compared to the genetic profile of the alleged father, and if a large enough number of similarities are found, then it can be concluded that the alleged father is indeed the biological father of the child. Modern day technology has now developed to the extent that results of a DNA test can confirm the identity of an alleged father with a level of probability that is superior to 99.99% and can exclude the alleged father from being the biological father of the child with a level of probability of 100%.
DNA relationship tests
An extension of the DNA paternity test that is also becoming increasingly popular are a variety of tests that fall under the umbrella term of DNA relationship testing. These kinds of tests are used to establish the nature and degree of kinship that exists between two people and are particularly useful in cases where the parents are not available for testing. Thus for example, one can test grandparents or an aunt/uncle to establish if a biological relationship exists, again these kinds of tests are based on current knowledge of modes of transmission of DNA from one generation to the next.
Forensic DNA tests
DNA testing has also acquired a place of primary importance in investigations of criminal cases. The uniqueness of the DNA profile has allowed criminal investigators to match the DNA found at the scene of the crime to that of potential suspects, and has provided an invaluable tool in the area of forensic science. Moreover, advances in modern technology have allowed this kind of technology to be available on a domestic basis, and forensic tests can now be ordered online. This kind of DNA testing can be carried out on a variety of samples such as items of clothing stained with bodily fluids, hair and toothbrushes, and is often particularly useful in cases of suspected infidelity.